Detergents (Total 22393 Papers Found)

Rat liver was homogenized in isotonic buffer, fractionated by differential centrifugation, and then subfractionated by equilibrium sedimentation in Nycodenz gradients. Fractions were assayed for both Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn-SOD by exploiting the cyanide sensitivity of the former activity and by the use of specific antibodies. As expected, the cytosol and lysosomal fractions contained Cu,Zn-SOD; while the mitochondrial matrix contained Mn-SOD. In mitochondria, Cu,Zn-SOD was found ...
A procedure for the isolation of osteopontin (OPN) from bovine milk using ion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography is described. A DEAE-Sephacel column followed by dual phenyl-Sepharose columns yielded approximately 8 mg of purified protein per liter of milk. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the protein migrated at M(r) 60,000. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the first seven amino acids revealed the protein to be identical to that previously reported for bovine OPN. Also, our preparation dem ...
Effects of forage source, concentration of metabolizable protein (MP), and type of carbohydrate on manure excretion by dairy cows and production of ammonia from that manure were evaluated using a central composite experimental design. All diets (dry basis) contained 50% forage that ranged from 25:75 to 75:25 alfalfa silage:corn silage. Diets contained 10.7% rumen-degradable protein with variable concentrations of undegradable protein so that dietary MP ranged from 8.8 to 12%. Starch concentratio ...
Plasmodium falciparum is an intracellular parasite of the red blood cell. During development it exports proteins which are transported to specific locations within the host erythrocyte. We have begun to identify and characterize exported membrane proteins of P. falciparum in order to obtain specific marker molecules for the study of the mechanisms involved in the distribution of parasite-derived proteins within the host cell. In this report we describe the characterization of a 35 kDa protein wh ...
Desmosomes are unique intercellular junctions in that they invariably contain two types of transmembrane cadherin molecule, desmocollins and desmogleins. In addition they possess a distinct cytoplasmic plaque structure containing a few major proteins including desmoplakins and the armadillo family member plakoglobin. Desmosomal cadherins are putative cell-cell adhesion molecules and we have tested their adhesive capacity using a transfection approach in mouse L cells. We find that L cells expres ...
Chepang, inhabiting the rugged terrain of Mahabharat and Churia range in central Nepal, is a group of indigenous people suffering from severe food insecurity. Their ancestors lived a semi-nomadic life up to one and half century back. To a large extent, Chepang still continue their traditional way of living, which includes collection of wild tubers (‘kandamul’), hunting and fishing. Chepangs are especially connected with the tubers of Dioscorea spp. Wild and cultivated species of Dioscorea ar ...
In order to assess the growth and nutrient utilisation in lambs fed processed karanj cake, ®fteen apparently healthy non-descript growing male lambs (mean body weight 10:6 0:50 kg) were equally divided into three groups (1, 2 and 3) following completely randomized design. Animals in group 1 were fed conventional concentrate mixture containing de-oiled groundnut cake (DGNC) as a major protein source, whereas, in groups 2 and 3, DGNC was replaced at 50% level with expeller pressed karanj cake and ...
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are infectious and fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. Pathological features of TSEs include the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into an altered disease-associated conformation generally designated PrP(Sc), abnormal deposition of PrP(Sc) aggregates, and spongiform degeneration of the brain. The molecular steps leading to PrP(C) aggregation are unknown. Here, we have utilized an inducible oligome ...
Our results show that a net synthesis of thiamine triphosphate (TTP) can be demonstrated in vitro using rat brain extracts. The total homogenate was preincubated with thiamine or its diphosphate derivative (TDP), centrifuged, and washed twice. With TDP (1 mM) as substrate, a 10-fold increase in TTP content was observed in this fraction (nuclear fraction, membrane vesicles). A smaller, but significant, increase was observed in the P2 fraction (mitochondrial/synaptosomal fraction). In view of the ...
The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which ...
BACKGROUND Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most commonly occurring organisms retrieved from root canal treated teeth that show refractory apical periodontitis. Though it is well known that the ability of E. faecalis to form a matrix-encased biofilm contributes to its pathogenicity, the role of extracellular dextran and DNA in biofilm formation and its effect on the susceptibility of the biofilm to chlorhexidine remains poorly understood. It was hypothesized that the addition of an Extracellu ...
The objectives of the trial were to study the effects of rare earth element (REE) lanthanum (La) on the in vitro rumen methane (CH4 ) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and the microbial flora of feeds. Four feed mixtures with different levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), that is 20.0% (I), 31.0% (II), 41.9% (III) and 52.7% (IV), were formulated as substrates. Five levels of LaCl3 , that is 0, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mmol/kg dry matter (DM), were added to the feed mixtures, respectively ...
A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been applied to the analysis of the relation between the structural features of chemicals and the primary eye irritation in rabbits. One hundred thirty one heterogeneous chemicals including medicals, pesticides, detergents and organic solvents were used in this study. The eye irritation ratings were made in three classes on the basis of the recovery time of corneal and conjunctival damages. Thirty six descriptors were used to des ...
To improve washing laboratory vessels a selection of effective detergents was made and the technology of washing has been worked out. These data formed a groundwork for the construction of the washing machine, model BII-200, whose pilot unit has passed technical and medical tests and is recommended for batch production. The capacity of the machine with the use of the synthetic detergent "Trias" (per cycle): 252 test tubes, 96 microscope slides, 30 Petri dishes. The duration of the washing cycle ...
Membrane protein isolation is a challenging problem. In fact especially their extraction from the respective membrane is difficult and often goes along with losses in yield. Usually expensive detergents are needed to extract the target protein from the membrane. Therefore finding an efficient overexpression and extraction method and an alternative to detergents is desirable. In this study we describe a new and fast method to express, extract and purify an engineered variant of the FhuA protein ( ...
IN the course of work on the behaviour of commercial detergents of the anionic type, we needed some standard substances with which to compare the commercial products. The sodium sulphonates of the straight-chain substituted benzene hydrocarbons appeared to be likely compounds. The required hydrocarbons from butyl benzene to tetradecyl benzene were synthesized from the fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms. The branched-chain compound α-dimethyldecyl benzene was also synthesized. From th ...
A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effects of supplementing orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) with 2 levels [5 and 10% of total dry matter (DM) fed] of starchy (barley grain, BAR) or fibrous (beet pulp, BP) carbohydrate sources on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, bacterial protein synthesis, and CH4 output. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement usin ...
Thirteen mono-N-acyl derivatives of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-new potential inhibitors of the dapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE; EC 3.5.1.18)-were analyzed and characterized by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies and two capillary electromigration methods: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Structural features of DAP derivatives were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies, ...
Understanding how membrane proteins interact with detergents is of fundamental and practical significance in structural and chemical biology as well as in nanobiotechnology. Current methods for inspecting protein-detergent complex (PDC) interfaces require high concentrations of protein and are of low throughput. Here, we describe a scalable, spectroscopic approach that uses nanomolar protein concentrations in native solutions. This approach, which is based on steady-state fluorescence polarizati ...
Phospholamban (PLN) is a dynamic single-pass membrane protein that inhibits the flow of Ca(2+) ions into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of heart muscle by directly binding to and inhibiting the SR Ca(2+)ATPase (SERCA). The PLN monomer is the functionally active form that exists in equilibrium between ordered (T state) and disordered (R state) states. While the T state has been fully characterized using a hybrid solution/solid-state NMR approach, the R state structure has not been fully portraye ...
High-throughput crystallization of biological macromolecules is usually performed on multi-well plates, the design of which needs to address different and sometimes conflicting requirements. In this regard, handling of membrane proteins presents a particular challenge owing to the common use of detergents with associated effects on surface tension. Reported here is the design of a new crystallization plate, termed the MPI tray, which is optimized for UV and visible imaging with membrane protein ...
NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase (EC 1.6.2.4), the enzyme involved in progesterone 17-hydroxylation, was purified to apparent homogeneity by detergent solubilization of the microsomal fractions of liver and testis from untreated rats. The enzymes from these two tissues were then compared with regard to several parameters. The liver and testicular reductases have the same subunit mol wt (79,000), determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and have similar ...
GLUTAMIC dehydrogenase has been demonstrated in several higher plants1 and is associated with mitochondria of pea2 and oat3. Mitochondria isolated from mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings4 were found capable of oxidizing glutamic acid (90 &µl. oxygen/hr./mgm. (nitrogen). The assay of glutamic dehydrogenase in intact mitochondria is limited by a permeability barrier to pyridine nucleotides. Reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide was oxidized by mitochondria suspended in 0.2 M sucrose, 0.05 ...
The tranquilizer reserpine has several effects on adrenal medullary chromaffin-granule membrane vesicles (ghosts). At low concentrations (0.20 +/0 0.12 nmol/mg of membrane protein), reserpine inhibits proton-linked epinephrine uptake but does not affect transmembrane pH and electrical potential gradients. Reserpine apparently binds to and blocks the catecholamine translocator. At intermediate concentrations (14.3 +/- 4.8 nmol/mg of membrane protein), reserpine abolishes the ATP-dependent enhance ...
Addition of prothrombin to mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro resulted in the formation of a thrombin-like enzyme, as demonstrated by use of the luminogenic peptide substrate S-2621. The prothrombinase activity was sedimented by high-speed centrifugation following homogenization of the cells and was abolished by treatment of the cells with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 at 0.02% concentration. Moreover, the activity was drastically reduced by maintaining cultures in the presence of warfa ...
Whole rat liver nuclei were treated with citraconic anhydride, a reagent specific for primary amines. Dramatic changes were observed in nuclear morphology and light scattering properties. An analysis for DNA and RNA content suggested that DNA was released from the nuclei with a short half-time, approximately 2-4s demonstrating a biphasic release profile. RNA was similarly released but with a monophasic profile. Analysis of SDS-PAGE gels of modified nuclei demonstrated a progressive enrichment of ...
Four dairy farms were used to determine the effects of water addition to diets and sample collection location on the particle size distribution and chemical composition of total mixed rations (TMR). Samples were collected weekly from the mixing wagon and from 3 locations in the feed bunk (top, middle, and bottom) for 5 mo (April, May, July, August, and October). Samples were partially dried to determine the effect of moisture on particle size distribution. Particle size distribution was measured ...
Genital allergy or irritant reaction should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom clinical manifestations remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. The term “contact dermatitis” denotes an acute or chronic inflammatory skin disorder caused by chemical/ physical irritants irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) or allergens allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Despite their differen ...
For many types of cells, an increase in cell density leads to characteristic changes in intracellular signalling and cell function. It is unknown, however, whether cell density affects the function of T lymphocytes. It is presented here that aggregation of Jurkat T cells, murine thymocytes or human peripheral blood T cells, results in gradual modification of the Lck tyrosine kinase. Within one hour of aggregation, Lck in the detergent-insoluble lipid raft fraction is dephosphorylated mainly at t ...
An esterase-encoding gene, estR5, was directly obtained from the genomic DNA of goat rumen contents. The 555-bp full-length gene encodes a 184-residue polypeptide (EstR5) without putative signal peptide. Deduced EstR5 shared the highest identity (50%) to a putative arylesterase from Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EstR5 was closely related with microbial esterases of gastrointestinal source. A comparison of the conserved motifs shared with GDSL proteins reveal ...
The actin- and myosin-binding protein, caldesmon (CaD) is an essential component of the cytoskeleton in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells and is involved in the regulation of cell contractility, division, and assembly of actin filaments. CaD is abundantly present in endothelial cells (EC); however, the contribution of CaD in endothelial cytoskeletal arrangement is unclear. To examine this contribution, we generated expression constructs of l-CaD cloned from bovine endothelium. Wild-type CaD (WT ...
An alanine transport carrier was partially purified from brush border membranes of rabbit small intestine. The alanine carrier activity was not solubilized with 0.4% deoxycholate but recovered in the detergent-insoluble fraction. The detergent-insoluble proteins were reconstituted into proteoliposomes with soybean phospholipids. The reconstituted proteoliposomes were capable of uptake of alanine driven by an electrochemical potential of Na+. The initial rate of alanine uptake into the proteolipo ...
Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is detected in soluble-form as a result of translocation from the membrane site by cleavage at the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety (GPI anchor). It is known that membrane-bound ALP (mALP) can be detected in serum in certain pathological and physiological conditions, and that it can be solubilized in vitro to soluble-ALP (sALP) by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), phospholipase D, bile salt, detergent, etc. We observed a marked increase i ...
An immunoprecipitation-inhibition procedure is assessing whether different antigenic determinants are carried on the same molecule or on different molecules on cells. The procedure entails (a) exposing NP-40 lysates of cells to antibody against one antigenic specificity; (b) removing free antibody and immune complexes by absorption with protein A-bearing S. aureus bacteria; (c) adsorption of the NP-40 with a detergent binding resin; and (d) measuring the inhibitory activity of the lysates for an ...
The haemolytic action on washed guinea-pig red cells of the following substances has been studied: the direct lytic factor (DLF) of cobra venom, melittin and an apamin-containing fraction of bee venom, anaphylatoxin (AT), angiotensin, vasopressin, saponin, p-chloro-mercuribenzoate (p-CMB) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Further the synergism of these substances with phospholipase A in causing haemolysis has been investigated. In regard to the lytic effects, the substances studied can be classified a ...
Initial studies using rigid-rod molecules or "baguettes" to address bioorganic topics of current scientific concern are reported. It is illustrated how transmembrane oligo(p-phenylene)s as representative model rods can be tuned to recognize lipid bilayer membranes either by their thickness or polarization. The construction of otherwise problematic hydrogen-bonded chains along transmembrane rods yields "proton wires," which act by a mechanism that is central in bioenergetics but poorly explored b ...
Liposomes of certain lipid composition prepared by the detergent removal method (Brunner, J. et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1976. 455: 322) induced the proliferation of spleen cells from different mouse strains. Spleen cell populations enriched in B lymphocytes and those obtained from nude mice were induced to proliferate, whereas spleen cell fractions enriched in T lymphocytes and thymocytes were not. The mitogenic effect of liposomes resembled that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and it depended u ...
Cholesterol oxidase is of significant commercial interest as it is widely used as a biosensor for the detection of cholesterol in clinical samples, blood serum and food. Increased stability of this enzyme with regards to temperature and different solvent conditions are of great importance to the reliability and versatility of its applications. We here report the crystal structure of the cholesterol oxidase of Chromobacterium sp. DS-1 (CHOLOX). In contrast to other previously characterized choles ...
Human placental trophoblast plasma membranes were prepared by differential centrifugation and solubilized in nonionic detergent. Transferrin receptors were isolated from the solubilized membranes by affinity chromatography on diferric transferrin-coupled Sepharose 4B. The trophoblast plasma membrane vesicles demonstrated NADH-ferricyanide oxidoreductive activity. However, NADH-Fe(III) oxidoreductive activity was very weak when Fe(III)-ammonium citrate or diferric transferrin was used as electron ...
Estrogens induce rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) effects on the target cells. The early effects include induction of signal transduction pathway within seconds, whereas the delayed responses require hours and involve transcription and translation. The rapid effects of estradiol (E) on the vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) involved calcium uptake within seconds via the induction of phosphoinositol lipid metabolism as reported in our earlier studies. In this study, we demonstrate the presen ...
The reversibility of the SDS-mediated activation of latent peach PPO has been studied using cyclodextrins as strip detergent agent. Cyclodextrins produced a combined inhibitory effect on enzymatic activity of latent peach PPO due to the complexation of detergent and the hydrophobic substrate 4-tert-butylcatechol (TBC) molecules. To study the reversibility of the activation process, this combined effect has to be separated. On the one hand, the enzyme was activated by acid-shocking and the activi ...
P IPET WASHING has always been a major problem in. a clinical chemistry laboratory. When blood and other body fluids are pipetted the inside of the pipets tends to retain a coating of lipids which is often difficult to remove. On the other hand, the specimens are usually small and utmost accuracy is desired. A pipet which does not drain properly and retains drops of the solution on the inside of the walls contributes greatly to the analytic errors of the laboratory procedure. There are several s ...
The kinetic properties of intact and digitonin-treated Na,K-ATPase from bovine brain were studied. The temperature dependence curve for the rate of ATP hydrolysis under optimal conditions (upsilon 0) in the Arrhenius plots shows a break at 19-20 degrees. The temperature dependence curves for Km' and Km" have breaks at the same temperatures, while the Arrhenius plot for V is linear. The value of the Hill coefficient (nH) for ATP at 37 degrees is variable depending on ATP concentration, i. e. it i ...
Peptide binding by class II major histocompatibility complex proteins is generally enhanced at low pH in the range of hydrogen ion concentrations found in the endosomal compartments of antigen-presenting cells. We and others have proposed that class II molecules undergo a reversible conformational change at low pH that is associated with enhanced peptide loading. However, no one has previously provided direct evidence for a structural change in class II proteins in the mildly acidic pH condition ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are heterodimers formed by noncovalent linkage of alpha and beta chains. It has been shown that the subunits of the MHC class II molecules IAd and IEk bind antigenic peptides as well as antigenic peptides labeled with fluorescent probes. Laser scanning fluorescence microscopy on SDS/polyacrylamide gels demonstrates that the subunit-peptide complexes of IAd are stable over a wide pH range. Below pH 5.3 the heterodimer of IAd dissociates in ...
MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) and certain other related antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor produce vacuolization and necrosis of neurons in the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial (PC/RS) cortex of rats. Neuronal necrosis initiates an astrocytic and microglial reaction. The present studies evaluated the astrocyte response with a sandwich format enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate filament protein in astrocytes. I ...
We extend our previous molecular dynamics experiments [Rodriguez et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 24427 (2005)] to the analysis of the adsorption of catanionic surfactants at water/air interfaces, at a surfactant coverage close to that of the saturated monolayer: 30.3 A(2) per headgroup. The mixture of surfactants investigated corresponds to equal amounts of dodecytrimethylammonium (DTA) and dodecylsulfate (DS). The structure of the interface is analyzed in terms of the local densities and orientat ...