Chlamydia (Total 19737 Papers Found)

BACKGROUND Several nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are US Food and Drug Administration-cleared for detecting urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infection, but they have not been adequately evaluated for the relatively common oropharyngeal or rectal CT and GC infections in men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS Multiple swabs were collected from the oropharynx and rectum of MSM attending a city sexually transmitted disease clinic. The specimens were ...
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence devices for many gram-negative bacteria that are pathogenic for plants, animals, and humans. They serve to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells. T3SSs are composed of a large cytoplasmic bulb and a transmembrane region into which a needle is embedded, protruding above the bacterial surface. The emerging antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens urges the development of novel strategies to fight b ...
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an enigmatic human and animal pathogen. Originally discovered in association with acute human respiratory disease, it is now associated with a remarkably wide range of chronic diseases as well as having a cosmopolitan distribution within the animal kingdom. Molecular typing studies suggest that animal strains are ancestral to human strains and that C. pneumoniae crossed from animals to humans as the result of at least one relatively recent zoonotic event. Whole genome ana ...
BACKGROUND In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. METHODS AND RESULTS We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary care unit for Braunwald class IIIB unstabl ...
Increasing evidence suggests that plant polyphenolic compounds may protect from cardiovascular diseases, which have been addressed to their antioxidative properties. In addition, these compounds have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial potential. In the present study we tested the effects of two flavonoid compounds, quercetin and luteolin, and one alkyl gallate, octyl gallate, on the course of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were treated with qu ...
BACKGROUND Previous works have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. We evaluated the prevalence of C. pneumoniae infection in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS Ninety-eight patients with AMI, 80 patients with CHD, and 50 control subjects matched for age and sex were investigated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgG, and IgA antibodies to C pneumoniae were measured by the microimmuno ...
Lipid inclusions play an important role in several pathological processes. Intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as members of the Mycobacterium and Chlamydia species are able to trigger the formation of lipid-laden foamy macrophages. Lipid droplet accumulation in the host constitutes a reservoir used by the bacilli for long-term persistence. Viruses need lipid droplets as assembly platform. We present the current knowledge about structural, functional and regulatory aspects of lipid inclusion ...
Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae are important human pathogens with significant socio-economic and medical impact. The development of an improved therapy or vaccine would represent a major break-through in the battle against these infections. Despite intense research on Chlamydiaceae, the molecular genetic analysis of these pathogens remains difficult as genetic manipulation still remains impossible. Even though several options for generating a universal genetic sys ...
In 378 women coming for examination with the symptoms of a chronic inflammation of the previously randomly treated endocervix, the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 17.2%, i.e. in every fifth woman with chronic cervicitis. The diagnosis of the cervical inflammation was made according to the criteria of Harrison and co-workers. The patients' age range from 17 to 58 years. ...
RATIONALE Severe, steroid-resistant asthma is the major unmet need in asthma therapy. Disease heterogeneity and poor understanding of pathogenic mechanisms hampers the identification of therapeutic targets. Excessive nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and concomitant IL-1β responses occur in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory infections, and neutrophilic asthma. However, the direct contributions to patho ...
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause for cardiovascular mortality. We determined the effect of multi-antigenic construct expressing three peptides AHC (ApoB100, HSP60 and outer membrane protein of chlamydia pneumonia) in stabilizing advanced atherosclerosis in Apobtm2Sgy/Ldlrtm1Her/J mice. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding high fat diet (HFD) to mice for 10 weeks, followed by five oral dosing with purified AHC or ovalbumin on alternate days and continued on HFD for another 10 weeks. Toleran ...
The MICs of three new antimicrobial agents of different classes, U-70138F, roxithromycin (RU 965), and ofloxacin (ORF 18489), versus Chlamydia trachomatis in McCoy cell cultures were 0.25, 0.8, and 1.0 microgram/ml, respectively. For each test drug, the MIC and MBC were identical or were within 1 dilution of one another. These drugs possessed sufficient activity in cell culture to suggest possible clinical effectiveness. ...
To determine the prevalence of infection and colonization with Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status, 363 women (age range 15 to 48 years; median age 24) were screened. Cultures for C trachomatis were obtained prospectively. Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from 16.8% of the patients. The incidence of infection ranged from 18.4% in the group age 15 to 19 through 13% in the group age 30 to 39, to 0% in the 40 and older group. Thus, in the population studies, C tra ...
Two calcium alginate-tipped wire swab specimens were obtained from 94 men and 106 women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. One swab was extracted thoroughly in 2-sucrose phosphate (2SP) immediately after obtaining the specimen. The second swab was returned to the Culturette cylinder (Marion Scientific, Kansas City, MO), and the ampule containing 2SP was crushed to moisten the swab during transport to the laboratory. After receipt in the laboratory, the swab was removed from the Cul ...
Although the actin network is commonly hijacked by pathogens, there are few reports of parasites targeting microtubules. The proposed member of the LcrE protein family from some Chlamydia species (e.g. pCopN from C. pneumoniae) binds tubulin and inhibits microtubule assembly in vitro. From the pCopN structure and its similarity with that of MxiC from Shigella, we definitively confirm CopN as the Chlamydia homolog of the LcrE family of bacterial proteins involved in the regulation of type III sec ...
  • Kirsten Kernaghan,
  • Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987)
  • 2007
Healthy Respect is a Scottish Executive funded National Health Demonstration Project, which addresses young people's sexual health. One of the 19 projects in phase 1 (2001 to 2004) was to introduce Chlamydia trachomatis testing in non-medical settings. This involved the development, implementation and evaluation of an initiative in a sexual health service which aimed to encourage young people under the age of 25 years in Lothian to be tested for Chlamydia. This article discusses why it is import ...
  • Geoff Enders,
  • Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Perinatologie
  • 1983
The various viral and other microbial infections represent only a small proportion (5-10%) of the noxae which threaten pregnancy and the fetus. However, interest is centered on them because methods of controlling them are now available. These include preventive measures, e.g., active immunization prior to pregnancy for measles, mumps, and rubella; passive prophylaxis with immunoglobulins when the pregnant women comes into contact with, e.g., rubella and varicella, and passive-active prophylaxis ...
BACKGROUND Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). METHODS Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administ ...
Chlamydial infection of the lower genital tract usually spreads to the upper genital tract and is then responsible for more serious consequences of chlamydial infection, such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain and pelvic inflammatory disease [1]. Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and the resulting cytokine environment largely determines the outcome of infection and disease [2–7]. Chlamydial infections are usually treated with Azithromycin or Doxycycline [8]. The immunomo ...
The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these p ...
There are mostly metaplastic cells, which are affected by chlamydia, show a dense usually cyanophilic cytoplasm with vacuolization. They are characterized by more or less round granula, sometimes also amorphous inclusion bodies. The vacuoles are multiple and mostly perinuclear, sometimes the nucleus is pushed aside like a signet-ring cell. Also columnar cells of the endocervix may be infected by chlamydia. They are showing more less characteristic signs, mostly a fine vacuolated cytoplasm. A sme ...
Several recent reports including serological, pathological and animal studies have associated Chlamydia pneumoniae with coronary artery disease (CAD). In order to establish whether chronic C. pneumoniae infection is linked to coronary artery disease, clinical intervention trials may be needed. However, to detect eligible patients with persistent infection, a reliable diagnostic marker must be developed for identifying cases and assessing efficacy of antichlamydial therapy. Moreover, the prevalen ...
BACKGROUND Patients without a regular healthcare source are less likely to be tested, diagnosed, and treated effectively for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Emergency departments (EDs) are a major healthcare source for patients without health insurance or primary care providers. GOAL This study evaluated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in women aged 15 to 35 years presenting to a metropolitan ED with genitourinary or pregnancy-related complaints and the ...
The role of five pathogens potentially implicated in the reproductive failure of 141 male dromedary camels was investigated. Breeding soundness examinations, which included semen analysis and testicular histopathology of the infertile male camels, were compared with seven camels of normal fertility. Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) were detected using the ELISA assay. Antibodies against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) were identified using the ca ...
BACKGROUND Although specimen collection is acknowledged to be a critical factor in the testing of chlamydia, rarely do studies examine the effects of specimen transport on laboratory results. GOAL To compare the results on specimens shipped in a controlled environment with duplicate specimens exposed to environmental conditions such as heat or extended time in transit. STUDY DESIGN Duplicate specimens were collected from 1,017 women tested at South Carolina public health clinics. One specime ...
Epidemiological evidence suggests that airway obstruction is an independent risk factor for lung cancer and that this cannot be explained by active or passive smoking alone. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with chronic bronchitis and its exacerbates. Our aim was to evaluate the association between chronic C. pneumoniae infection and risk of lung cancer among male smokers. Smoking males with lung cancer (n = 230) and their age- and locality-matched controls were selected among ...
An oligonucleotide array technology was established for rapidly detecting and genotyping Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital infections. The VS1-VS2 region of the omp1 gene was used to design oligonucleotide probes. Eleven serovar-specific probes to serovars A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, and K, and 3 group-specific probes to group B (B, Ba, D, E, L1, and L2), group C (A, C, H, I, J, K, and L3), and an intermediate group (F and G) were synthesized and spotted onto the nylon membrane. Two pairs of ...
OBJECTIVE To determine the specific impact on the incidence rate of some demographic and behavioral characteristics in outpatients with four bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). STUDY DESIGN A cross-sectional hospital outpatient-based study was conducted from 1990 to 1996 on 1064 consecutive symptomatic STD cases (Chlamydia trachomatis, n = 375; gonorrhea, n = 369; early symptomatic syphilis, n = 288, and chancroid, n = 32) using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS In a referenc ...
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that multiples within the confines of a membrane-bound vacuole called an inclusion. Approximately 40-50% of the sphingomyelin synthesized from exogenously added NBD-ceramide is specifically transported from the Golgi apparatus to the chlamydial inclusion (Hackstadt, T., M.A. Scidmore, and D.D. Rockey. 1995. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92: 4877-4881). Given this major disruption of a cellular exocytic pathway and the similarities between ...
A non-competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed to detect IgG antibody to the recently-described species Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR. Purified elementary bodies of the organism were used as capture antigen. Cross-reacting antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in the assay by running a parallel EIA for IgG antibody to C. trachomatis. The C. pneumoniae assay was validated by comparing the results on 60 selected sera with those obtained with the microimmunofluorescence test. ...
There is no single standard methodology for in vitro susceptibility testing for Chlamydia pneumoniae, but many investigators pre-incubate this organism with the cell monolayer for 1 h prior to adding antimicrobial and incubating for 72 h. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extended C. pneumoniae pre-incubation, and extended incubation in the presence of antimicrobial, on the MICs of 5 antimicrobials. MICs were determined for 5 ATCC strains of C. pneumoniae by employing similar ...
CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.Determine and discuss issues surrounding consent, confidentiality, and billing for sexually transmitted infection (STI) care delivery in the adolescent population.2.Review currently available testing modalities for STIs and their applicability in the adolescent population.3.Provide treatment and prevention strategies for the most commonly encountered STIs in the adolescent demographic. Adolescents and young adults, 15 to 24 years of age, carry a disproportionate bur ...
The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) L2 serotype of Chlamydia trachomatis has been isolated from the rectums of three homosexual men with acute, primary ulcerative proctitis that responded to appropriate anti-chlamydial therapy. LGV is still present in the urban United States and must be considered in cases of acute ulcerative proctitis. ...
An open, randomized, multicentre study compared the efficacy and safety of 3-day azithromycin with 10-day roxithromycin for the treatment of atypical pneumonia. Azithromycin was administered 500 mg once daily to 90 and roxithromycin 150 mg bid to 60 patients. Causative pathogens were identified by serological methods. In the azithromycin treatment group, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified in 65, Chlamydia spp. in 9 and Coxiella burnetti in 1 patient. In the roxithromycin treatment group, M. pn ...
Using a fluorescein labelled monoclonal antibody ("Microtrak") to identify Chalmydia elementary bodies in urethral smears, we detected Chlamydia trachomatis in 32 (26.67%) of 120 male patients after treatment of their gonococcal urethritis. Sixteen of these 32 patients (50%) had normal urethral smear. Only 16 (50%) of the patients yielding chlamydia would have received treatment in the absence of diagnostic service for chlamydial infection. ...
Based on the results of the comparative analysis concerning relatedness and evolutional difference of the 16S - 23S nucleotide sequences of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain, and based on identification of phylogenetic position for Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trichomatis strains released from monkeys, relatedness of the above stated isolates with similar strains released from humans and with strains having nucleotide sequences presented in the GenBank electronic datab ...
In a study of 180 male homosexual patients attending a venereal disease clinic, a correlation was sought between symptoms and signs of proctitis and the isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, group B streptococci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and herpes simplex virus. Faecal specimens were examined for enteric pathogens and serological tests for hepatitis B virus, syphilitic and chlamydial infections were performed. There was no association between proctitis, as ...